The result left Guatemala in third place in Group F with three points and a minus-6 goal difference, behind Russia and Colombia, which defeated the Solomon Island 11-3 earlier in the day.
Sergey Sergeev put Russia ahead with the first of his three goals as the European runner-up took a 4-0 lead within 11½ minutes.
Dmitri Prudnikov had a goal in each half, and Sergeev scored twice in the 16th minute as the Russians pushed their lead to 6-0 by halftime.
The win assured Russia of a berth in the knockout round, while Guatemala will face the winless Solomon Islands on Friday with a chance to advance.
The loss was the second worst by Guatemala at the Futsal World Cup, eclipsed only by a 29-2 defeat to Brazil in 2000.