Clarke, who was the second-leading scorer at the CONCACAF championship in May with six goals, converted a feed from Nichelle Prince in the 51st minute to improve Canada to four points.
That equaled Nigeria, which beat host Azerbaijan 11-0 later Tuesday, and left Canada in second place on goal difference. Colombia had three points with one match to play.
Canada will face winless Azerbaijan on Saturday, when Colombia will take on Nigeria. Two teams will advance.
Unlike its opening 1-1 draw with Nigeria, Canada had the better of possession and chances against Colombia, outshooting the South Americans 16-8.
Canada went ahead when Prince found space along the right, turned into the penalty area and served a rolling cross into the middle of the six-yard box where Clarke volleyed from three meters.
Nicole Loncar struck the crossbar from distance in the 61st and Canada had another goal disallowed for offside, sending Canada's to Saturday's match with a chance to advance for the first time at the World Cup