Outshot 27-8, and with Nigeria generating 10 corners, Canada went ahead in the 63rd when second-half substitute Nichelle Prince fed Amandine Pierre-Louis, who dribbled into the area before beating keeper Gift Andy.
Nigeria put three shots off the goal frame in the first half: Chinwendu Ihezuo hit the crossbar after a short-corner, Jiroro Ideke's corner also hit the bar and Chidinma Edeji struck the post from four yards.
Ihezuo hit the post once more in the second half before Nigeria finally tallied. Adeboyejo had a cross from the left that was blocked, but she sent in a second try that Ihezuo volleyed for the equalizer.
"They definitely had a lot of chances in the first half while there were few for us but that's sometimes how the game roles," Canada coach Bryan Rosenfedl said. "After the first half, the team easily could have fallen apart.
"We had to come up with some ideas and we capitalized on them. We were able to catch Nigeria on the break and that's part of the game."